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Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small cameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract. Transurethral surgery has been the cornerstone of endourology. Most of the urinary tract can be reached via the urethra, enabling prostate surgery, surgery of tumors of the urothelium, stone surgery, and simple urethral and urethral procedures. Recently, the addition of laparoscopy and robotics has further subdivided this branch of urology.

The common procedures done are:

  • Cystosocpy
  • Urethroscopy
  • Transurethral resection of prostate
  • Transurethral resection of bladder cancer
  • Ureteroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the ureter.
  • Uretero-renoscopy
  • Nephroscopy
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: used to treat stones and tumors of the kidney lining.